Ancient
Modern
Population
  • At the height of Roman rule in Maghrib estimated to be around 8 million
  • Most of population are Berbers
  • There are 34,586,184 people in Algeria as of July 2010
  • 99% of the population are Sunni Muslims
  • 1% of the country is ether a Christian or a Jew
Per Capita Income
  • N/A
  • $7,400 - as of 2010
  • Algeria is a poor country.
  • It is the 126th country in the world by wealth.
Land area (sq. miles)
  • Part of the Maghrib
  • Mediterranean woodlands/forests and steppe
  • Deserts, Plateau, Mountains
  • 1,479,945 sq.mi total area
  • Top of country is on the coast of the Medeterrian Sea
  • it borders Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Niger, Mali, Mauritania, and Western Sahara
  • Algeria is located on the Northern Tip of Africa
  • it is the second largest country in the continent of Africa
  • 620 miles of coastline
  • largest country in Africa
Political System/ Government
  • N/A
  • Republic government type
  • Algeria has 3 branches of government including Executive, Legislative, and Judicial
Imports/ Exports
  • Exports: grapes, beans, figs, fruits
  • Imports: wine, tobacco
  • Imports: wheat, barley, oats, grapes, olives, citrus, fruits, sheep, cattle
  • Ex ports: petroleum, natural gas, light industries, mining, electrical, petrochemical, food processing
  • Ex ports partners: US, Italy, Spain, France, Canada, Netherlands, Turkey
  • largest export: oil and gas, 98% of all exports
Cultural Traditions
  • architecture had an impact such as the Jami 'al-Jadid mosque and the Sid Abdarrahman mosque/tomb
  • known to value hospitality and generosity
  • Men wear European clothing or traditional wool cloak called a gandoura, needlework to display one's wealth
  • Women wear long haiks which are laid and wrapped over the entire body covering from head to toe, worn with loose pants, and only shows the person's eyes
Religions
  • Berber communities
  • Islam (Sunni) 99%
  • Jewish/Christian less than 1%













  • In 647 CE, Arabs arrive in Algeria.
  • In the seventh century, Muslims moved in North Africa.
  • In the eighth century, Berbers mostly converted into Islam.
  • In 1518, Turkey Gained control of Algeria. Barbarossa, a Turkish sailor, joined what areas he did control to the Ottoman Empire, which is an Islamic Empire. Algeria was under the empire until the beginning of the 1800's.
  • In 1830, France had control of northern Algerian. Since, France ruled Algeria as part of it, it made it difficult for Muslims to be French citizens.
  • In 1847, the French beat rebellious Algerian forces lead by a Muslim leader.
  • In 1848, French announced that Algeria was the first colony of France and was part of the republic of France.
  • In 1879, Europeans living in Algeria can become French citizens while Algerians can only be citizens once they convert to Christianity.
  • In 1880, Muslim Algerians were not given citizenship or the right to vote.
  • In 1901, World War I – Muslims wanted independence and equality from France.
  • In 1914, France controlled all of Algeria.
  • In 1940, Algeria was a battle ground during WW2. France surrendered to Germany. France and Germany formed a government at Vichy,France.
  • In 1942, the Vichy government ended in Algeria, due to the US, UK, and other Allied countries invaded and occupied Algeria.
  • In 1945, Algeria wins WW2.
  • In 1946, Islam official state of religion.
  • In 1962,(July 1st) Algeria was free from France.
  • In 1962, Ahmed Ben Bella was elected president.
  • In 1963, (September 8) a Constitution was adopted.
  • In 1965, (June 19) President Ben Bella was replaced.
  • In 1976, (December 10) Boumediene was elected Head of State.
  • In 1978, (December 27) Boumediene died.
  • In 1979, Chadli Bendjedid was elected president.
  • In 1984, Chadli Bendjedid was re-elected president
  • In 1988, Chadli Bendjedid was re-elected president
  • In 1989, a new constitution was adopted.
  • In 1992, (January 11) President Chadli Bendjedid resigned.
  • In 1992, (June 29) President Boudiaf was assassinated onn television. Lembarek Boumarafi confessed to carrying out the killing.
  • In 1994, Liamine Zeroual, , was appointed Head of State.
  • In 1998, (September) President Liamine Zeroual announced he would step down in February, before the end of his term.
  • In 1999,(April 27) President Bouteflika was inaugurated for a 5-year term.
  • In 2001, (October) Tamazight was the official national language.
  • In 2004, (April 8) there was a presidential election. Bouteflika won.
  • In 2007, (April 11) suicide attacks took place and killed over 20 people.
  • In 2007,(December 11) another suicide attack took place. It killed 60 plus people.
  • In 2008, (November) a seat of constitutional amendments were adopted.
  • In 2009,(April 9) Bouteflika won a third term in office. He won with 90.2% of the vote.













FRENCH CONTROL
The French had control of what is Algeria. They had this controlled from 1914 to 1962. Since the French were mostly Christians, it was difficult for the Algerian Muslims to become French citizens. Under French control the Algerians were ruled under a government called Vichy. Vichy was formed by France and Germany and is named after the city of Vichy in France. This rule ended in 1942. Before that in 1940 during WW2 France surrendered to Germany. Once this happened France and Germany cop-orated to form this government.

What Makes Algeria Unique?

  • second largest country in Africa, yet being poor.

  • Algeria's location has geographic luck as Jared Diamond says because it is borders the Mediterranean Sea which is good for fishing, trade, irrigation,etc., and has plains for farming and agriculture.

  • Algeria has 99% of the population being Sunni Muslims while the other 1% is either Christians or Jews, making this country's prominent religion Islam.

  • Because of this, the ethnicity of Algeria is 99% Arab/Berber and 1% European.

  • This country is influenced by the Arabs, Romans, and the Europeans (especially the French) in their clothing style (like the gandoura), language, economy, society, and literature.

  • Algeria had a revoultion against the French for independence and was victorious.

  • Kept some of its cultural traditions like music, clothes, architecture, language, and art

  • Islam was introduced in the seventh century but established as official religion in 1946.

How Islam affected Algeria, and how the impact changed over time?

Islam gives Algeria its cultural and social identity and its principles govern much of the nations ethics and behavior. Following the revolution, various groups have tried to influence Algeria into becoming an Islamic Arab socialist state. One religion in such a large country is a way to unite the people. Since 99% of Algeria is Sunni Muslim it is really easy for people to connect with one another. The Algerian flag (shown below) is an example of Islam in the society. The crescent, star, and the green are all well know symbols of the Islam faith. Many mosques are built in Algeria for praying and the Five Pillars affected people's daily lives. Islam plays a large political role in Algeria like the Islamist view, where Islam is regarded as all-embracing and must be part of every aspect of life, both private and public. The impact changed over time as Islam changed its ways like adding the Five Pillars or Sharia law.


What kinds of religious, political or cultural conflicts have occurred over Algerian history?
Over the history of Algeria, the French had taken Algeria over and cultural conflicts occurred. One thing the French wanted to change was the "de-vieling " of the women's veils covering their faces except their eyes. However, the people of Algeria did not like how the French are changing their tradition so after they gained independence from the French, they brought the custom back. When the French had taken over, it was difficult for the Muslims to become French citizens unless they convert to Christianity.

How has Algeria retain its diverse traditions?

Algeria has retained its unique music. It is a very popular mix of modern and western music called chaabi. This is a perfect example of how Algeria has retained it traditions, as well as how Algeria has modernized. Algerian music has impacted other countries as well as its own. Algeria has also retained its architecture and art styles like the repeating shapes arts, mosque designs, and clothing styles like men's gandoura, European clothing or traditional wool cloak, and women's long haiks which only shows the person's eye. Algerians most important holiday is the anniversary of their revolution from France. It is celebrated every November first since 1954. This November it will be celebrated for the 57th year. The language in Algeria has been changed several times. It was originally the language of Berber. Berber had many different dialects across the country so it was difficult to have that one sturdy form of communication. The French came and tried to imply there language on the natives. When Algeria was finally independent Arabic was made the official language. French is dying in Algeria but Berber and Arabic is what you will hear if you visit.

How has your country changed over time?

Over time, Algeria has grown bigger in land area and has more population. Algeria has been in the hands of France, as well as other empires, but it now stands independently. This had made the country stronger. In changes, Algeria is always re-electing presidents which keeps the government fresh with ideas, Algeria accepted changes to their law (which is mostly French and Islamic) as well as creating new laws and structures(in the past 50 or so years). Islam has greatly impacted Algeria such as the mosques and daily life. Sharia law and Five Pillars, clothing styles, architecture, and arts are things that Islam changed.

What were the most important causes of the changes you found?
The most important causes of the changes of Algeria are from the French who took over Algeria. Over the history of Algeria, the French had taken Algeria over and cultural conflicts occurred. One thing the French wanted to change was the "de-vieling " of the women's veils covering their faces except their eyes. Another thing that was that it was difficult for the Muslims to become French citizens unless they convert to Christianity. However, the people of Algeria did not like how the French are changing their tradition so after they gained independence from the French, they brought the "vieling" of women back. Also, the independence of France from WW2 caused a lot of changes like retaining their traditions back and being able to practice their religion, Islam, freely.

Summary:
Algeria is an amazing country. Over time, Algeria has grown bigger in land area and has more population. It would be nothing without contributions from Islamic culture that helps to run this magnificent country today. Algeria has found ways of contributing to the religion that makes up 99% of their people by honoring them Islam in the flag. The crescent, star, and green half of the flag shown below are all aspects of the Islamic faith. The majority of how Algerian leaders run their country is based on Islamic way as well as French traditions. Islam hs also influenced the daily lives of Algeria. Mosques being built everywhere is one thing, and another is following the Five Pillars and Sharia law. The French has influenced Islam alot because they were conquered by them back then like the clothing the men wear like gandoura, European clothing or traditional wool cloak. One thing the French wanted to change was the "de-vieling " of the women's veils covering their faces except their eyes. Another thing that was that it was difficult for the Muslims to become French citizens unless they convert to Christianity. Algeria eventually had a revolution against France for independence and was victorious, gaining their traditional customs back like veiling of women. Islam gives Algeria its cultural and social identity and its principles govern much of the nations ethics and behavior. Algeria, being an older nation, has lots of traditions. Veiling of women is a popular tradition. Their music is a great way of expressing their faith. Algeria is definitely one of the most interesting nations out there.












Algerian_Flag.gif
the crescent, star and green all symbolize islam











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ABC Clio
Algeria-Early History
Algeria Modern Culture
BBC
BBC News- Time Line
CIA World Factbook
Every Culture - Algerians
New York Times Country Profiles
NPR - Guide to Protests in Middle East
World Book Online - Student