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external image 541px-India_%28orthographic_projection%29.svg.png



Although India is a small part of our large planet, It is a very important country on its own.With many conquerors , rulers, dynasties, empires, and kingdoms, India's history is full of excitement.




The Flag of India:


The flag of India is not only unique but each part of it also represents something greater. The saffron orange colored strip resembles courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; the white colored stripe represents purity and truth; and last but not least the green stripe signifies faith and fertility. In between the saffron and green stripes and in the middle of the white stripe is the blue Chakra, which is supposed to symblize the wheel of life in movement, and death in stagnation.
The flag of India is not only unique but each part of it also represents something greater. The saffron orange colored strip resembles courage, sacrifice, and the spirit of renunciation; the white colored stripe represents purity and truth; and last but not least the green stripe signifies faith and fertility. In between the saffron and green stripes and in the middle of the white stripe is the blue Chakra, which is supposed to symblize the wheel of life in movement, and death in stagnation.






Modern Day Map of India:


Modern map of Indian Cities, and land features
Modern map of Indian Cities, and land features
Modern map of Indian states and union territories
Modern map of Indian states and union territories



























The Emblem of India:
external image 331px-Emblem_of_India.svg.pngexternal image national-emblem-772123.jpg

The Emblem of India: There are four lions on the Emblem of India, one of which is hidden (from view) behind. These lions that sit on top of the circular abacus (“a tablet placed horizontally on top of the capital of a column”) represent power, courage, and confidence. On the abacus itself are present four small animals, which are known as the “guardians of the four directions”. The lion being the guardian of the north, the elephant as the guardian of the east, the horse as the guardian of the south, and the bull being the guardian of the west. The whole abacus is set on top of an upside down lotus in full bloom (which is not shown in the above emblem on the left). The lotus stands for “the fountainhead of life and creative inspiration”. We Also notice that once again The blue Chakra is present, which symbolizes the wheel of life in movement.
Last but not least “The motto 'Satyameva Jayate' inscribed below the emblem in Devanagari script means 'Truth Alone Triumphs of bliss”.






Ancient
Modern
Population
not applicable
Total Population:
1,173,108,018

Specific Population:

0-14 years: 30.5% (male 187,197,389/female 165,285,592)15-64 years: 64.3% (male 384,131,994/female 359,795,835)65 years and over: 5.2% (male 28,816,115/female 31,670,841)
Per Capita Income
...not applicable
$3,400
Land Area

Water Area
not applicable
Total: 3,287,263 sq km
land: 2,973,193 sq km (2,973,193,000 sq m)

water: 314,070 sq km ( 314,070,000 sq m)
Political System/Government
Monarchy's in Dynasties
Government Type:
federal republic
Imports/ Exports
not applicable
INDIA(Barygaza)

Imports:
  • cinnamon
  • pepper
  • olive oil
  • grain
  • tin
  • wine
  • cosmetics
  • textiles
  • clothing
  • sandalwood
  • tortoise shell

Exports:
  • pearls
  • cotton
  • sandalwood
  • perfumed oils
  • semi-precious stones
  • nard (ginger root)

Re- Exported:

  • silk from China
  • tortoise shell
  • ginger

SOUTH INDIA(Muziris)

Imports:
  • gold Roman coins
  • glassware
  • silverware
  • wine
  • clothing
  • cloves
  • cardamon


Exports:
  • black pepper
  • nard (ginger root)
  • ivory
  • pearls
  • cinnamon
  • tortoise shell
  • fine cotton clothing

Re- Exported:
  • imported cloves
  • imported cardamom
Cultural Traditions:
(Ethnic makeup, clothing, music, art, etc)
  • The traditional Indian clothing has been the same for many years.
  • Many of the common dress garments that are worn by modern men and women today, were worn by their ancestors as well.


Traditional Indian Clothing:
  • The men of northern India wore the Kurtha kurta], (A dress or shirt like garment which usually has long sleeves, and extends to the waist) which resembles the long, flowing tunic worn by Pakistani and Afghan.
  • In the south the men wore a dhoti, which is a piece of clothing that is wrapped around the body below the mans waist (like a skirt)
  • Many Indian women, like the men. could wear a Kurtha [kurta], but they add an elegant Dhupatta [Dupatta] (which is a long wide scarf)
  • Women could also wear a sari, which is a dress that wrapps around the body. ( made of hand-woven silk, and designed cotton)
  • A sari is many times worn at religious events
    A women wearing a traditional Sari
    A women wearing a traditional Sari
Indo-Aryan 72%, Dravidian 25%, Mongoloid and other 3%

Bharatanatyam (பரதநாட்டியம்) external image Bharata_natyam_dancer_medha_s.jpg
  • Bharata Natyam is the manifestation of the ancient idea of the celebration of the eternal universe through the celebration of the beauty of the material body.
  • Practiced throughout South India by predominantly young females and women.
Balliwood
Arangratram (அரங்கேற்றம்)
  • The debut on-stage performance of a Bharatanatyam external image Indian-dancer-nataraja.png(பரதநாட்டியம்)





Traditional Indian Clothing:
  • The men of northern India wear the Kurtha
    A men wearing a traditional Kurta
    A men wearing a traditional Kurta
    [kurta], (A dress or shirt like garment which usually has long sleeves, and extends to the waist) which resembles the long, flowing tunic worn by Pakistani and Afghan.
  • In the south the men wear a dhoti, which is a piece of clothing that is wrapped around the body below the mans waist (like a skirt)
  • Many Indian women, like the men. can wear a Kurtha [kurta], but they add an elegant Dhupatta [Dupatta] (which is a long wide scarf)
  • Women can also wear a sari, which is a dress that wrapps around the body. ( made of hand-woven silk, and designed cotton)
  • A sari is many times worn at religious events

external image moz-screenshot-10.png

Food:
Tea and Wine are two modern beverages to India which were introduced to the Indians by the British
Religion(s)
Hinduism, Buddhism, and Janism, and Vedic
Hindu 80.5%, Muslim 13.4%, Christian 2.3%, Sikh 1.9%, other 1.8%, unspecified 0.1%
Products of India:



Agricultural products
  • Rice
  • Wheat
  • Oilseed
  • Cotton
  • Jute
  • Tea
  • Sugarcane
  • Lentils
  • Onions
  • Potatoes
  • Dairy
  • Products
  • Sheep
  • Goats
  • Poultry
  • Fish

Industrial Products:

  • Textiles
  • Chemicals,
  • Food processing
  • Steel
  • Transportation equipment
  • Cement
  • Mining
  • Petroleum
  • Machinery
  • Software
  • Pharmaceuticals


Energy production:
  • 38.65 billion cu m
  • 878,700 bbl/day
  • 723.8 billion kWh

More country Exports and Imports:

Exports commodities:
  • Petroleum products
  • Precious stones
  • Machinery
  • Iron
  • Steel
  • Chemicals
  • Vehicles
  • Apparel

Energy Exports:
  • Natural gas 0 cu m
  • Oil 738,600 bbl/day
  • Electricity 810 million kWh

Import Commodities:
  • Crude oil
  • Precious stones
  • Machinery
  • Fertilizer
  • Iron
  • Steel
  • Chemicals

Energy Imports:
  • 12.62 billion cu m
  • 2.9 million bbl/day
  • 5.27 billion kWh

Timeline:


Islam was first brought in by Arabs in early eighth century
711 AD The Arabs conquer Sindh and Multan (Pakistan)
800 AD Kingdoms are created in central India and in Rajastan by Rajputs
890 AD First Hindu temples were build at Khajuraho in India
temples in Khajuraho India
temples in Khajuraho India

997 AD Mahmud of Ghazni raids northern India
1019 AD Mahmud Ghaznavid raids north India again, and destroys Kanauj, the capital of the Gurjara-Pratihara empire
1288 AD The Italian explorer Marco Polo visits India
1030 AD The Ghaznavid empire conquers Punjab
1304 AD Mongols under Ali Beg invade India but are repelled by the Delhi sultanate
1325 AD Muhammad ibn Tughluq becomes sultan of Delhi
1327 AD sultan Muhammad ibn Tughluq moves his capital from Delhi to Daulatabad (Deogiri) in the Deccan
1333 AD The Muslim explorer Ibn Battuta travels to India
1336 AD The southern province of the Delhi sultanate declares independence
1345 AD Muslim nobles revolt against Muhammad ibn Tughluq, declare their independence from the Delhi sultanate, and found the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan
1349 AD Muslims raid Kathmandu in Nepal
1555 AD The Mogul king Humayun reconquers India
1556 AD The Mogul king Humayun dies and his son Akbar becomes the ruler of India
1562 AD Akbar marries Padmini, a Hindu princess of the Rajaputana kingdom
1605 AD Akbar dies and is succeeded by his son Jahangir
1803 AD Britain takes Delhi from the Marathas
1858 AD India comes under direct rule of the British crown after failed Indian mutiny.
1885 AD The Indian National Congress is founded
1906 AD The All-India Muslim League is founded
1920 AD Mahatma Gandhi founds the non-violent liberation movement Satyagraha
1920-22 - Mahatma Gandhi launches anti-British civil disobedience campaign.
1930 AD Gandhi unleashes "civil disobedience" against the British external image moz-screenshot-2.png
Mahatma Gandhi, the one who steered India to independence
Mahatma Gandhi, the one who steered India to independence

1944 AD Gandhi is released from prison
1947 AD Lord Mountbatten announces the partition of the colony in two independent countries, India and Pakistan
1947 AD End of British rule and partition of sub-continent into Hindu India and Muslim-majority state of Pakistan.
1947 AD One million people die in communal violence due to the partitionexternal image mahatma%20gahni.png
1947 AD Following rioting by the Muslim majority in Kashmir, Pakistani troops attack India and occupy part of Kashmir
1948 AD Mahatma Gandhi is assassinated by a Hindu extremist
1948 AD Muhammed Ali Jinnah, the prime minister of Pakistan, dies and is succeeded by Liaquat Ali Khan
1949 AD India signs a treaty with Bhutan to conduct its foreign policy
26 January 1950 – 13 May 1962 Dr. Rajendra Prasad became the first president
1951-52 - AD Congress Party wins first general elections under leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru.
1952 AD India holds the first general elections, won by the Congress Party
1956 AD Pakistan enacts a new constitution and becomes an Islamic republic
1965 AD India and Pakistan fight another war over Kashmir


Mahatma Gandhi मोहनदास करमचंद गांधी born 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948)
Mahatma Gandhi मोहनदास करमचंद गांधी born 2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948)





Empires and Dynasties:

  • Maurya Empire :

  • From 322 to 185 BCE ruled by the Mauryan Dynasty
  • First started by Chandragupta Murya in Magadha (present day Bihar)
  • Expended under the rule of Ashoka the Great (who spread Buddhism and set up multiple Buddhist monuments)
  • Stretched from the north to the boundaries of the Himalayas, all the way to the east of present day Assam. (reached beyond modern Pakistan, Balochistan, and Afghanistan to the west.
  • Expended into central and southern India under the emperor Chandragupta, and Bindusara.
  • The three main religions of the Maurya Empire were Hinduism, Buddhism, and Janism.

Was once located where the following present day countries are:
external image 22px-Flag_of_India.svg.png India
external image 22px-Flag_of_Pakistan.svg.png Pakistan
external image 22px-Flag_of_Bangladesh.svg.png Bangladesh
external image 22px-Flag_of_Afghanistan.svg.png Afghanistan
external image 16px-Flag_of_Nepal.svg.png Nepal
external image 22px-Flag_of_Bhutan.svg.png Bhutan




Map of Maurya Dynasty in 265 BCE under the rule of Ashoka the Great
Map of Maurya Dynasty in 265 BCE under the rule of Ashoka the Great

Ashokan pillar at Vaishali, 3rd century BCE.
Ashokan pillar at Vaishali, 3rd century BCE.


















  • Sātavāhana Empire శాతవాహన సామ్రాజ్యము (Early Middle Kingdoms — The Golden Age):


  • The Satavahana Dynasty or also known as the Andhras, took place in southern and central india, past the year of 230 BCE
  • It is estimated that the Andhras lasted for approximately 450 years, until about the year 220 CE.
  • The satavahana's are known for establishing peace in the Indian country.
  • Was originally part of the Mauryan Empire, but declared Independence
  • They were one of the first Indian state to have images of their rulers on their coins.
  • The religions of the Satavahana Empire were Buddhism, Vedic, and Hinduism.
  • Was a monarchy government founded by Simuka the king

external image 250px-SatavahanaMap.jpg


  • Gupta Empire गुप्त राजवंश (The Classical Age + Golden Age)

  • The Gupta took place from approximately 320 to 550 CE. This time frame is sometimes referred to as the Golden Age of India.
  • The Gupta Empire is known for its great achievements in Science, Technology, Engineering, Art, Dialectic Literature, Logic, Mathematics, Astronomy, Religion, and the Philosophy of the Hindu culture.
  • They invented the Decimal Numeral System
  • The peace of this time period allowed for science and art to flourish in India.
  • The Gupta Empire was also known for its many type of arts, such as its magnificent architecture, sculptures, and beautiful paintings.
  • Trade made the region and important cultural center.
  • The capital of the Gupta Empire was known as Pataliputra, which is modern day Patna.
  • Sanskrit was the main language used, and the main religions were Hinduism and Buddhism.
  • The Gupta Empire government was a monarchy. founded by Maharaja Sri Gupta.



Was once located where the following present day countries are:

external image 22px-Flag_of_India.svg.pngIndia
external image 22px-Flag_of_Pakistan.svg.pngPakistan Bangladesh
external image 22px-Flag_of_Bangladesh.svg.png Bangladesh
external image 22px-Flag_of_Myanmar.svg.png Myanmar

"Shakuntala looking back to glimpse Dushyanta" Painting by Raja Ravi Varma (1848-1906).  From the Gupta Empire time period.
"Shakuntala looking back to glimpse Dushyanta" Painting by Raja Ravi Varma (1848-1906). From the Gupta Empire time period.
Gupta Empire at its greatest extent.
Gupta Empire at its greatest extent.

























Islamic Influence,Empires and the Delhi Sultanate:

Delhi Sultanate:
  • Muhammad of Ghor invaded the Indo-Gangetic plain, during the last quarter of the twelfth century.
  • he conquered Ghazni, Multan,Sindh,Lahore and Delhi.
  • Many of the Islamic Kingdoms ruled from delhi between the years of 1206 and 1526
  • The last islamic dynasty was the Mughal Dynasty
  • There were 5 more dynasty's before the Mughal Dynasty which were:
    • The Mamluk (slave) Dynasty from 1206- 1290 which conquered a lot of northern India
    • The Mamluk dynasty is also refered to as the slave dynasty because when Muhammad of Ghor had set up the dynasty he appointed Qutub-ud-din Aiback, who was his Mamluk (slave) as his governor.
    • The Khilji Dynasty from 1290 to 1320 which conquered mainly Central India, as well as repeatedly defeated the Mongol Empire
    • The Tuglaq Dynast which lasted from 1320 to 1413 Had to rulers, Ghias- ud-din Tughlaq who was the first ruler, and ruled from 1320- 1325, and then there was the second ruler Firoz Shah Tughlaq qho took control in 1351 when Ghias-ud-din passed away. Firoz ruled until 1388, and was considered to be a successful ruller.
    • The Sayyid Dynasty which lasted from 1414 to 1451
    • And last but not least the Lodi Dynasty from 1451 to 1526 was founded by Bahlul LODI.
  • The above Dynasty's were some of the longest lasting islamic Dynasty's in Northern India. external image Delhi_History_Map.png
Islamic expansion:

  • During the year of 712 CE an Arabic Muslim general, Muhammad Bin Qasim conquered the Indus region in the northern region of india.
  • In what is today modern day Pakistan
  • Islam also first appeared in the south western tip of the peninsula,, were trade was common between the Arabs and the Malabar region.
  • Muslim conquests were expanded under Muhmud and the Ghaznavids until the late 12th century,
  • When the Ghurids overran the Ghaznavids and extended the conquering in Northern India. Qutb- ud- din Ayback conquered Delhi in 1206 and began the reign of the Delhi Sultanates.
  • During the 14th century Islam continued to spread throughout India with the help oh Alauddin Khilji
  • He extended the Muslim rule south to Gujarat, Rajasthan, and Deccam
  • Following that many new Muslim dynasties formed throughout the 13th through 18th century
  • Such as the: Qutb Shahi and the Bahmani dynasties




The British Raj:







The flag of the British Raj (British India)
The flag of the British Raj (British India)

File:British Indian Empire 1909 Imperial Gazetteer of India.jpg
File:British Indian Empire 1909 Imperial Gazetteer of India.jpg
























Modern Geography and Climate of India:

  • India has seven Physiographic regions:
    • A great arc of mountains, consisting of the Himalayas, the Hindu Kush, and the Patkai ranges. (These mountains were formed when the Indian Plate collided at first with the Eurasian plate 50 million years ago)
    • Indo-Gangetic plains ( Also known as Northern plains or The North Indian River plain) this is a large and fertile plain that crosses most of Northern and Eastern India.
    • The Thar Desert ( थार मरुधर) which is also known as the Great Indian Desert. This Desert is a large region that covers the northwestern part of India, which forms a natural boundary between Pakistan and India
    • The Central Highlands and the Deccan Plateau, which is a large plateau that makes up a lot of the southern part of India.
    • The East Coast of India
    • The West Coast of India
    • And last but not least the Bordering seas and islands of the Indian Peninsula.
  • Climate:
  • India has on average six major climate types: which range from dry desert weather, to freezing icy weather in the north, and humid tropical weather in the southwestern rain forests and islands.
  • In the winter Northern India is kept warm or barely cold, because the Himalayas protect the northern region from the Katabatic winds, which blow down on India from Central Asia. Is is also the case during the summer, which is why India is recorded to get to extremely hot temperatures during those hot summer days.
  • The tropic of Cancer passes through the center of India, which separates the country into tropics and subtropics. Although the country as a whole is considered to be very tropical


A geographical map of modern day India
A geographical map of modern day India
A geographical map of modern day India
A geographical map of modern day India


Average Temperatures in India (Measured in degrees Celsius)
Average Temperatures in India (Measured in degrees Celsius)




Conclusions/ Summery :

  • How has your country retained its diverse traditions?
  • How has your country changed over time? (politically, culturally, geographically, etc.)
  • In what sense has modernity and tradition clashed?
  • What were the most important causes of the changes you found? (i.e. rise of Christianity, rise of European power, Mongol invasions, trade, natural disasters, etc.)



India is one of the worlds most unique and diverse countries. From its delicious food, to its beautiful dances, India has kept generations of tradition alive up until modern day. It is not easy for a culture so ancient, to stay so true to its original ways, but India manged for the the most part, to keep its ancient history always alive. With the Islam religion joining theirs, the cultures collided, each with a different prospective of life, this resulted in ethnocentrism. If either one said their religion was better then the other thought their own religion was better as well, and therefore both religions fought for many years. Tragedies, after tragedies, and conflict after conflict the Muslims and the Indians fought with one another day in, and day out.
It is not until the British decided to step in that change started to happen. Weather it was for the good or bad, depends on the perspective of the person, and how you look at it.This was the start of the British Raj. "Controversy [still] remains over whether Britain developed or retarded India's economy." as stated in the bbc article, you can never know weather the British rule is in fault for everything that goes on in India up to this day. The British were like the third side of the triangle, trying to stop the Muslims and the Indians from killing each other. But with all their attempts, the two cultures, even up to this day, constantly bicker and fight with one another, sometimes resulting in wars, and bombings. In the year of 1947 when the British Raj came to an end, the start of the partition between the the Muslims and Indians began. In the year of 1948 India became an independent country, and the Indian empire became the Union of India (Present day Republic of India) and the Dominion of Pakistan (or present day the Islamic Republic of Pakistan)
Even though India was constantly taken over by different cultures, and rulers, and introduced to many types of government systems, the political changes India went through were not its only noticeable changes. India's geography changes one bit at a time, every day, ever since the day the world was formed. As the Indus plate continues to constantly collide with the Eurasian plate, the World famous Himalayan mountains become larger, and new mountains form. This is a major geographical change, that with the years could result in many other cultural, geographic, climate, and political changes. As new mountains form, and more mountains "grow" the climate of India slowly changes, this could also change the culture of the Indians, such as the type of clothing they were. The change in geography can affect the politics of India as well. Considering new mountains, is therefore equal to new lands, and arguments may rise between India and its bordering countries about who owns what land.
In addition to geography causing change in the countries culture, another aspect that changes the traditional Indian culture is the modernization of the world. Dance is a very important part of Indian culture. Many times children and women attend dance schools and academies all their life, some even turn dance into their profession, therefore at one point or another a women must preform the Arangratram or the Bharatanatyam dances. Back when these dances were first created, many objects and things that we have available to us today in modern day, were not available then. Therefore one a young girl dances her Arangratram today, it ends up being modernized as new technology is used to make her dance seem even better, then the traditional classic one, that was danced hundreds and hundreds of years ago.In the category of dance, there is one more example in which traditional dancing has clashed with modern day culture. This would be Balliwood. Balliwood, a rather modern depiction of Hollywood, was not present when the Indian culture was first being invented. Although Indian dance, songs and culture are shown in these movies, and shows, they are being used to portray modern day entertainment of the American Hollywood. This shows how the classical cultural dance traditions combined with the modern Hollywood movie traditions of the 1900's.








Bibliography

http://news.bbc.co.uk
http://www.southalabama.edu
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://worldgeography.abc-clio.com
http://worldgeography.abc-clio.com
http://www.historyforkids.org
https://www.cia.gov
http://news.bbc.co.uk/
http://www.gloriousindia.com
http://www.youtube.com/